An ambitious online disinformation campaign which impersonated major media outlets, used fake Twitter accounts to spread false articles, as well as also also targeted real journalists will be likely linked to Iran, according to researchers who tracked This particular for close to two years.
Since early 2016, the operation published 135 fabricated articles on websites designed to mimic outlets such as The Guardian, Bloomberg, Al Jazeera, The Independent, The Atlantic, as well as also also Politico. In one example, a fake article claiming which six Arab nations called on FIFA to strip Qatar of its role as host of the 2022 World Cup was covered by Reuters, which caused different outlets to spread the disinformation. Reuters retracted its story once This particular realized the information originated on a website which had impersonated a real Swiss news outlet, although some of the false stories coming from different outlets remain online.
“This particular just underscores how difficult This particular will be to verify information when you have bad actors spreading malicious content deliberately, as well as also also can disguise their motivations,” said Ron Deibert, director of the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto’s Munk School, the research group which conducted the analysis as well as also also published This particular in a brand new report.
Deibert told BuzzFeed News This particular operation shows how “social media will be being treated as a disinformation laboratory by many state as well as also also non-state actors.”
Citizen Lab concluded with “moderate confidence” which the network will be tied to actors in Iran after analyzing domains, articles, as well as also also Twitter accounts among different information, as well as also also combining This particular with findings coming from investigations published by Facebook as well as also also FireEye. Citizen Lab did not find evidence linking This particular to the Iranian government, although did conclude which the operation was focused on spreading anti-Saudi narratives.
This particular remains unknown who led as well as also also executed the disinformation operation, which Citizen Lab dubbed “Endless Mayfly.”
The report provides essential brand new information about the rash of spoofed news websites as well as also also fake articles which generated scrutiny as well as also also media attention since 2016. In one well-known example, a website impersonating Belgian newspaper Le Soir published a false story claiming then-candidate Emmanuel Macron’s campaign for the French presidency was financed by Saudi Arabia. In another example, BuzzFeed News investigated a false article coming from a site which impersonated The Guardian as well as also also found which This particular had quickly gained traction in Russian media.
Deibert said Citizen Lab published its findings because the operation used brand new techniques to spread disinformation, as well as also also researchers, journalists, as well as also also the public need to be aware of how quickly these operations are evolving.
“This particular’s important to remind ourselves which Russian disinformation isn’t the only game in town,” he said. “This particular illustrates how difficult This particular will be to have a healthy public sphere when we have an ecosystem set up to promote the opposite … This particular’s a perfect environment for the spread of disinformation.”
Citizen Lab began researching what became Endless Mayfly in April of 2017 after an article hosted on the spoofed domain independent.co.ukuk was posted to Reddit. The story appeared on a website which copied the design of the real Independent, a UK news outlet. The story falsely claimed which “Theresa May attempt to get away with Brexit consequences by ‘kissing up to Arab regimes’ in vein.” Along with analyzing details about the domain name, the lab identified social media accounts used to spread the story.
Over time, the researchers tracked 11 fake Twitter personas used inside operation. “The personas created by Endless Mayfly were typically thin, with limited depth beyond a Twitter bio as well as also also a history of tweeting on a narrow band of topics. Personas included fake students, journalists, as well as also also activists,” the report says.
These personas would likely tweet the false articles as well as also also in some cases contact legitimate journalists via direct message to try as well as also also get them to further amplify the content.
“Endless Mayfly Twitter personas repeatedly tweeted out links to the inauthentic articles, made strategic use of Twitter mentions targeting established journalists as well as also also activists, posted screenshots of the inauthentic articles, as well as also also sent private direct messages to journalists as well as also also activists,” the researchers write.
They also noticed which the fake articles on spoofed websites were often deleted after they gained traction on social media.
“Typically, after the inauthentic articles were posted to Twitter, amplified by third parties, or covered by mainstream media, Endless Mayfly deleted the content as well as also also redirected visitors to the legitimate media outlets which they were impersonating,” the report said.
Deibert said This particular tactic might create the impression for some which the fake story had originally appeared on the real site.
“Part of the characteristics of social media will be short attention span as well as also also people focusing high level details,” he said. “This particular struck us as an innovation in disinformation tactics.”
The report dubs This particular technique “ephemeral disinformation” because “the message remains even though the evidence will be ephemeral.”
Endless Mayfly adapted its approach over time. inside summer of 2017 This particular shifted away coming from creating spoofed domains of legitimate media outlets to host false articles. Instead, This particular used fake Twitter personas to publish articles on websites which allow members of the public to post content, such as Medium as well as also also BuzzFeed.
In one case, This particular placed a false story inside Community section of buzzfeed.com. which section allows members of the public to post their own content as well as also also will be separate coming from the buzzfeednews.com domain where This particular story appears. The article in question falsely claimed which six Arab nations had told FIFA they object to Qatar hosting the 2022 World Cup. The post was removed when BuzzFeed News learned of its existence after receiving an advance copy of the Citizen Lab report. The post received a total of 17 views prior to being removed, according to analytics.
“While the Community section will be a great place for BuzzFeed’s audience to share positive, original content, we have zero tolerance for posts which violate our guidelines — which prohibit ‘deceptive’ as well as also also ‘fraudulent’ posts,” Matt Mittenthall, a company spokesperson said in an emailed statement. “We removed This particular piece as soon as This particular was brought to our attention, as well as also also remain vigilant about keeping BuzzFeed free of the kind of fake news as well as also also disinformation which has proliferated elsewhere on the internet.”
The false article uploaded to BuzzFeed Community claimed which Reuters as well as also also The Local, a Swiss online publication, were the source of the claim which Arab states were opposing Qatar’s World Cup. In fact, Reuters was fooled by a fake article published on a website masquerading as The Local. Endless Mayfly continued to exploit the error even after Reuters retracted This particular as part of its strategy of posting to third-party sites.
Deibert said the lab had found information linking Endless Mayfly to Iran during its investigation, although important brand new evidence came in in August 2018. which month Facebook as well as also also cybersecurity firm FireEye announced they had identified a network of social media accounts as well as also also websites which were part of an Iranian information operation. Many of the accounts as well as also also websites identified by those companies had also been used to help amplify Endless Mayfly content, according to Citizen Lab. “Soon, Google as well as also also Twitter then took action against the same network, citing “state-sponsored activity” as well as also also “coordinated manipulation.”
Deibert said This particular provided important outside confirmation of what his team had found. although he also emphasized which attribution will be difficult when actors with different motivations who can converge on the same narrative for different reasons.
“This particular will be a very messy ecosystem — which’s precisely why you have This particular type of operation going on, hoping to push out a narrative as well as also also amplify This particular,“ he said.
“Those who are looking to run information operations for whatever reason are seeing This particular time as one of experimentation in what works what doesn’t, as well as also also what will be going to have greatest impact for the lowest effort.”
Ultimately, the report said This particular’s difficult to determine how much impact Endless Mayfly had, aside coming from its occasional success at fooling media outlets.
“While there will be evidence which there was some interaction with the inauthentic articles as well as also also personas based on the number of clicks, retweets, as well as also also coverage coming from mainstream media, This particular will be unclear to what extent the operations swayed public opinion.”