When astronaut Scott Kelly started out the process of readapting to Earth’s gravity after returning coming from a year on the International Space Station — the longest ever for a NASA astronaut — most of the biological modifications he experienced in space quickly returned to normal. Yet some modifications persisted after six months: most notably of which 7 percent of his DNA remained alien “space DNA,” NASA reported last week.
Not only of which, Scott Kelly’s telomeres — the caps at the end of DNA strands of which protect the chromosomes along with deteriorate with age — lengthened, along with he came back 2 in. taller, although both his telomeres along with his height reverted to normal proportions back on Earth.
NASA’s findings are part of the Twins Study, conducted by NASA’s Human Research Program, to observe how the body responds to extended periods in outer space, in light of NASA’s goal of a human-crewed mission to Mars by the 2030s, a round-trip required to take about two along which has a half years.
Reports included data on what happened to Scott Kelly, physiologically along with psychologically, while he was in space, along with compared the data to his identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, as a control subject on Earth. What researchers observed were modifications in Scott’s gene expression, which is usually how your body reacts to your environment.
There is usually no doubt of which space does mysterious things to a body. Astronauts commonly report vision problems; others get post-flight kidney stones, most likely a result of the high level of carbon dioxide inside ISS air supply, which produces high concentrations of calcium oxalate inside bloodstream therefore stones to form inside kidneys.
Recent studies inside past two years examining astronauts bodies before, during along with after spaceflight reveal cellular modifications in their spinal cords, eyes along with brains of which, in many cases, resemble deterioration due to diseases on Earth, particularly those related to aging. Many of these, including arthritis, osteoporosis, glaucoma along with vertigo, currently have no cures.
In order to succeed in a long-term trip to Mars along with beyond, astronauts will need solutions to these issues. Scientists studying how to overcome them are translating what they find to generate solutions for similar medical conditions here on Earth.